It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons.
The expected result is an immediate escalation resulting in both combatants' total and assured destruction. It is now generally hypothesized that the nuclear fallout or nuclear winter resulting from a large scale nuclear war would bring about worldwide devastationthough this was not a critical assumption to the theory of MAD.
The doctrine further assumes that neither side will dare to launch a first strike because the other side will launch on warning also called fail-deadly or with secondary forces second strike resulting in the destruction of both parties.
The payoff of this doctrine is expected to be a tense but stable peace. The primary application of this doctrine started during the Cold War s to s in which MAD was seen as helping to prevent any direct full-scale conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union while they engaged in smaller proxy wars around the world.
It was also responsible for the arms raceas both nations struggled to keep nuclear parity, or at least retain second-strike capability. Although the Cold War ended in the early s, the doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction certainly continues to be in force.
Proponents of MAD as part of U.
Since the credibility of the threat is critical to such assurance, each side had to invest substantial capital in their nuclear arsenals even if they were not intended for use.
In addition, neither side could be expected or allowed to adequately defend itself against the other's nuclear missiles. This led both to the hardening and diversification of nuclear delivery systems such as nuclear missile silosballistic missile submarines and nuclear bombers kept at fail-safe points and to the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
This MAD scenario is often referred to as nuclear deterrence.
In practice, the theory proved both utterly effective and exceptionally dangerous e. History Pre Perhaps the earliest reference to the concept comes from the English author Wilkie Collinswriting at the time of the Franco-Prussian War in Echoes of the doctrine can be found in the first document which outlined how the atomic bomb was a practical proposition.
In Marchthe Frisch-Peierls memorandum anticipated deterrence as the principal means of combating an enemy with nuclear weapons.
In practice during World War II, utter annihilation from the air had already been visited upon the enemies of the Allied forcesboth in Europe and Japan, well before use of the Atomic Bomband with perhaps even deadlier results.
The incendiary attacks on Dresden in Germany, e. Four years later, on August 29, the Soviet Union detonated its own nuclear weapon. At the time, both sides lacked the means to effectively use nuclear devices against each other.
However, with the development of aircraft like the Convair Bboth sides were gaining a greater ability to deliver nuclear weapons into the interior of the opposing country. The official nuclear policy of the United States was one of " massive retaliation ", as coined by President Dwight D.
Eisenhower 's Secretary of State John Foster Dulleswhich called for massive attack against the Soviet Union if they were to invade Europe, regardless of whether it was a conventional or a nuclear attack. For the remainder of the Cold War, although official positions on MAD changed in the United States, the consequences of the second strike from ballistic missile submarines was never in doubt.
The multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle MIRV was another weapons system designed specifically to aid with the MAD nuclear deterrence doctrine. Since each defensive missile could only be counted on to destroy one offensive missile, making each offensive missile have, for example, three warheads as with early MIRV systems meant that three times as many defensive missiles were needed for each offensive missile.
This made defending against missile attacks more costly and difficult. One of the largest U. MIRVed missiles, the LGMA Peacekeepercould hold up to 10 warheads, each with a yield of around kilotons —all together, an explosive payload equivalent to Hiroshima-type bombs.
The multiple warheads made defense untenable with the technology available, leaving only the threat of retaliatory attack as a viable defensive option. The Soviet Union countered this threat by issuing a statement that any use of nuclear weapons against Soviet forces, tactical or otherwise, was grounds for a full-scale Soviet retaliatory strike.
Thus it was generally assumed that any combat in Europe would end with apocalyptic conclusions. This was not fully understood until the s when the strategy of mutually assured destruction was first fully described, largely by United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara.
In McNamara's formulation, MAD meant that nuclear nations either had first strike or second strike capability. A nation with first strike capability would be able to destroy the entire nuclear arsenal of another nation and thus prevent any nuclear retaliation.Tags: nbc shades of blue, watch shades of blue full episode, watch shades of blue video, jennifer lopez shades of blue, jennifer lopez harlee santos, ray liotta matt wozniak, shades of blue eye of.
Fifty years ago this week the idea of mutually assured nuclear destruction was outlined in a major speech. But how did this frightening concept of the Cold War fade from people's psyches? Today. Mutually assured destruction There are good reasons why Israel is unlikely to bomb Iran's nuclear facilities, writes Paul McGeough.
Oct 18, · Mutually assured destruction Eight months after impeachment, the defeat of the test ban proves that the air in Washington is still radioactive. Which of the following is the best definition of the term mutually assured destruction?
a policy of limiting nuclear testing to underground areas an idea that the threat of war was enough to prevent an attack a fear of producing powerful, destructive weapons a belief that a nuclear war would completely destroy both sides.
"Mutually Assured Destruction" is the eighth episode of the first season of the period drama television series The Americans. It originally aired on FX in the United States on March 20, Contents.