For example, the more likely a rival male is to back down from a threat, the more value a male gets out of making the threat. The more likely, however, that a rival will attack if threatened, the less useful it is to threaten other males. When a population exhibits a number of interacting social behaviors such as this, it can evolve a stable pattern of behaviors known as an evolutionarily stable strategy or ESS. This term, derived from economic game theorybecame prominent after John Maynard Smith  recognized the possible application of the concept of a Nash equilibrium to model the evolution of behavioral strategies.
Share6 Shares Being a predator is not easy. Many of them have to chase after their prey; they succeed only once in a while, and often waste valuable energies in the process. They may even risk being injured or killed by potential prey.
Some predators, however, have developed special, and often incredible, techniques and adaptations that allow them to trick their prey so that they never suspect any danger until it is too late. I give you 10 of these deadly tricksters of the animal world. But these pit vipers prefer to save their venom for their prey.
They feed on any small animal they can catch, from birds and frogs to lizards and small mammals. Instead, it uses a clever trick to lure their victims into attack range.
Its tail has a bright yellow or whitish tip, and the snake can move its tail so that it resembles a wriggling worm.
Since many Adaptations of the anglerfish its favorite prey feed on worms, they are tricked into approaching or even attacking the lure, and then the snake can strike and inject its deadly venom on the unsuspecting would-be predator.
Although Cantil vipers are not the only snakes that use their tail to trick prey, they are possibly the best known for it. Instead, it uses a hunting technique very similar to that of the Cantil pit viper.
It lies motionless in the water, looking very much like a harmless rock, with its jaws wide open. Its tongue has a fleshy appendage that looks much like a worm, and the turtle can move this appendage to make it even more worm-like.
This clever technique works best during day, when prey can clearly see the fake worm.
At night, the turtle actively walks on the lake or river bottom, feeding on whatever slow moving or dead animal it can find. Instead, they stay motionless in the sea bottom, relying on camouflage to hide themselves from both potential prey and predators.
One Wobbegong species, however, uses a more active luring technique. In fact, it is the same technique used by the Cantil pit viper. By flicking its tail, the Tasseled Wobbegong tricks smaller fish into its attack range.
Being extremely flexible, the Wobbegong can easily turn around in a fraction of a second and devour any fish that tries to take a closer look at its tail. Although the largest Wobbegong species can grow up to 3. They are also the most famous of all lure-using predators. At the tip of the spine there is a bulb-like organ which contains luminous bacteria, producing a blue-green glow similar to that of a firefly.
When a hapless fish or invertebrate approaches the lure, the anglerfish swallows it whole. Its stomach and bones are very flexible allowing the fish to devour prey up to twice its own size! Its most notable feature are the strange fleshy tentacles on its snout.
These tentacles are actually highly sensitive mechanosensors, which allow the snake to detect movement in the water and strike at any unfortunate fish that swims nearby. But fish have incredible reflexes and a fast strike is not enough sometimes, so the tentacled snake uses a clever trick to make fish swim towards danger.
When the fish approaches, the snake slightly ripples its body towards it. The fish immediately darts in the opposite direction… but this is what the tentacled snake expects, so it angles its head so that the fish swims directly into its waiting jaws.
The Green Heron, however, manages to lure fish into attack range without this advantage. Well, it uses bait. Indeed, green herons have been known to drop small objects onto the surface of water. Small fish are tricked into investigating the object, hoping it may be something edible, and then the heron quickly snatches the unsuspecting victim.
Not all Green Herons use this technique, but those who do become quite talented, and they even experiment with different kinds of bait.
Some herons have been seen stealing the bread that people feeds to ducks in ponds, and using the bread as bait. Other herons have been known to capture small fish but instead of eating them, they use them as bait for larger fish.
No one knows how Green Herons learnt to fish with bait. Some experts believe they learnt from humans, while others think they learnt by themselves by observing how small fish would investigate any small object or animal that fell to the water.
Either way, this behavior is obviously not instinctive, making the Green Heron quite possibly the smartest predator in this list.In order to check your understanding of mosquitoes, go through our worksheet and matching quiz.
The worksheet has a user-friendly format, making it. Sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, are found only in the Mediterranean and North Atlantic, in the coastal seas off the North East USA, Nova Scotia, southern Greenland, the UK, Ireland and tranceformingnlp.com are also found in the Great Lakes and enters inland freshwater rivers and streams to breed.
In their natural habitat, sea lampreys lives in the open ocean, migrating into freshwater to spawn.
Adaptation. The deep sea anglerfish is one of the most interesting sea creatures in the ocean. Because of the harshness of the environment within which the angler fish lives it has some pretty unique adaptations to aide in its survival.
Behavioural adaptations: Anatomical Adaptations: The fleshy growth come sout of its head which gives the angler fish its recognisable look, on which many different types of bacteria are allow to live. These bacteria are bioluminescent which gives the angler fish's lure its glowing properties.
Discover the incredible anglerfish, denizen of the ocean's deep, lightless realms. Learn how these predators attract their victims with bits of luminous flesh. Nov 12, · A survey of deep-sea habitats from mesopelagic to abyssal to hydrocarbon seeps, and of deep-sea animals from viperfish to tubeworms.