Geography Books Table of contents Sources and Acknowledgments.
Archaic globalization Archaic globalization conventionally refers to a phase in the history of globalization including globalizing events and developments from the time of the earliest civilizations until roughly the s.
This term is used to describe the relationships between communities and states and how they were created by the geographical spread of ideas and social norms at both local and regional levels.
The first is the idea of Eastern Origins, which shows how Western states have adapted and implemented learned principles from the East.
The second is distance. The interactions of states were not on a global scale and most often were confined to Asia, North Africathe Middle Eastand certain parts of Europe. The third has to do with inter-dependency, stability, and regularity.
If a state is not dependent on another, then there is no way for either state to be mutually affected by the other.
This is one of the driving forces behind global connections and trade; without either, globalization would not have emerged the way it did and states would still be dependent on their own production and resources to work. This is one of the arguments surrounding the idea of early globalization.
It is argued that archaic globalization did not function in a similar manner to modern globalization because states were not as interdependent on others as they are today. Because it predated the Great Divergence of the nineteenth century, where Western Europe pulled ahead of the rest of the world in terms of industrial production and economic outputarchaic globalization was a phenomenon that was driven not only by Europe but also by other economically developed Old World centers such as GujaratBengalcoastal Chinaand Japan.
This archaic globalization existed during the Hellenistic Agewhen commercialized urban centers enveloped the axis of Greek culture that reached from India to Spainincluding Alexandria and the other Alexandrine cities.
Early on, the geographic position of Greece and the necessity of importing wheat forced the Greeks to engage in maritime trade.
Trade in ancient Greece was largely unrestricted: Maize, tomato, potato, vanillarubber, cacaotobacco Trade on the Silk Road was a significant factor in the development of civilizations from China, Indian subcontinentPersiaEurope, and Arabiaopening long-distance political and economic interactions between them.
In addition to economic trade, the Silk Road served as a means of carrying out cultural trade among the civilizations along its network. Proto-globalization " Early modern -" or "proto-globalization" covers a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between and The concept of "proto-globalization" was first introduced by historians A.
Hopkins and Christopher Bayly. The term describes the phase of increasing trade links and cultural exchange that characterized the period immediately preceding the advent of high "modern globalization" in the late 19th century.
In the 17th century, world trade developed further when chartered companies like the British East India Company founded in and the Dutch East India Company founded inoften described as the first multinational corporation in which stock was offered were established.
The Triangular Trade made it possible for Europe to take advantage of resources within the Western Hemisphere. The transfer of animal stocks, plant crops, and epidemic diseases associated with Alfred W. European, MuslimIndian, Southeast Asianand Chinese merchants were all involved in early modern trade and communications, particularly in the Indian Ocean region.
During the early 19th century the United Kingdom was a global superpower. Modern[ edit ] According to economic historians Kevin H. Innovations in transportation technology reduced trade costs substantially. New industrial military technologies increased the power of European states and the United States, and allowed these powers to forcibly open up markets across the world and extend their empires.
A gradual move towards greater liberalization in European countries. During the 19th century, globalization approached its form as a direct result of the Industrial Revolution.
Industrialization allowed standardized production of household items using economies of scale while rapid population growth created sustained demand for commodities.
In the 19th century, steamships reduced the cost of international transport significantly and railroads made inland transportation cheaper. The transport revolution occurred some time between and The invention of shipping containers in helped advance the globalization of commerce. Exports nearly doubled from 8.
Many countries then shifted to bilateral or smaller multilateral agreements, such as the South Korea—United States Free Trade Agreement. Since the s, aviation has become increasingly affordable to middle classes in developed countries. Open skies policies and low-cost carriers have helped to bring competition to the market.
In the s, the growth of low-cost communication networks cut the cost of communicating between different countries. More work can be performed using a computer without regard to location. This included accounting, software development, and engineering design.
Between and the number of students studying in a foreign country increased 9 times.the worldwide intensification of interactions and increased movement of money, people, goods and ideas within and across national borders time-space compression the rapid innovation communication and transportation technologies associated with globalization that .
Thus for Anthony Giddens globalization is a process of “the intensification of worldwide relations which links the distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa.”6 Similarly David Held and Anthony McGrew define globalization as a process of expansion, acceleration, and.
The Glocalization of Youth Culture: The Global Youth Segment as Structures of Common Difference DANNIE KJELDGAARD SØREN ASKEGAARD* In this article we present an analysis of global youth cultural consumption based on a multisited empirical study of .
First, globalization is a set of processes rather than a description of the (fixed) state of a system. Second, central to the concept is the idea of spatial transformations in patterns of. Globalization: theory and experience.’Globalization’ is a favourite catchphrase of journalists and politicians.
It has also become a key idea for business theory and . 88 Globalization, State Failure, and Collective Violence It is argued that the relationship between state weakness, failure, and collapse can be better analyzed in the context of long-term, short-term, and precipitating factors or causes.